12.c.1 Amount of fossil-fuel subsidies per unit of GDP (production and consumption) and as a proportion of total national expenditure on fossil fuels
Awareness and understanding of existing subsidies based on credible data is necessary to increase transparency and inform decision-making. Reporting against a global indicator measuring consumer and producer fossil fuel subsidies provides a global picture that encompasses both consumer and producer subsidies. It allows for tracking of national and global trends and serve as an important guide for policy-making.
Three sub-indicators are recommended for reporting on this indicator:
- Direct transfer of government funds.
- Induced transfers (price support); and as an optional sub-indicator.
- Tax expenditure, other revenue foregone, and under-pricing of goods and services.
The reporting on this indicator will follow an annual cycle with initial reporting on induced transfers starting in 2018. Data on direct transfers and tax revenue foregone will be in place by 2020. The detailed metadata is shown in this document
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